I have an instance of a System.Drawing.Bitmap and would like to make it available to my WPF app in the form of a System.Windows.Media.Imaging.BitmapImage.

What would be the best approach for this?

Solution 1

How about loading it from MemoryStream?

using(MemoryStream memory = new MemoryStream())
{
    bitmap.Save(memory, ImageFormat.Png);
    memory.Position = 0;
    BitmapImage bitmapImage = new BitmapImage();
    bitmapImage.BeginInit();
    bitmapImage.StreamSource = memory;
    bitmapImage.CacheOption = BitmapCacheOption.OnLoad;
    bitmapImage.EndInit();
}

Solution 2

Thanks to Hallgrim, here is the code I ended up with:

ScreenCapture = System.Windows.Interop.Imaging.CreateBitmapSourceFromHBitmap(
   bmp.GetHbitmap(), 
   IntPtr.Zero, 
   System.Windows.Int32Rect.Empty, 
   BitmapSizeOptions.FromWidthAndHeight(width, height));

I also ended up binding to a BitmapSource instead of a BitmapImage as in my original question

Solution 3

I know this has been answered, but here are a couple of extension methods (for .NET 3.0+) that do the conversion. :)

        /// <summary>
    /// Converts a <see cref="System.Drawing.Image"/> into a WPF <see cref="BitmapSource"/>.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="source">The source image.</param>
    /// <returns>A BitmapSource</returns>
    public static BitmapSource ToBitmapSource(this System.Drawing.Image source)
    {
        System.Drawing.Bitmap bitmap = new System.Drawing.Bitmap(source);

        var bitSrc = bitmap.ToBitmapSource();

        bitmap.Dispose();
        bitmap = null;

        return bitSrc;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Converts a <see cref="System.Drawing.Bitmap"/> into a WPF <see cref="BitmapSource"/>.
    /// </summary>
    /// <remarks>Uses GDI to do the conversion. Hence the call to the marshalled DeleteObject.
    /// </remarks>
    /// <param name="source">The source bitmap.</param>
    /// <returns>A BitmapSource</returns>
    public static BitmapSource ToBitmapSource(this System.Drawing.Bitmap source)
    {
        BitmapSource bitSrc = null;

        var hBitmap = source.GetHbitmap();

        try
        {
            bitSrc = System.Windows.Interop.Imaging.CreateBitmapSourceFromHBitmap(
                hBitmap,
                IntPtr.Zero,
                Int32Rect.Empty,
                BitmapSizeOptions.FromEmptyOptions());
        }
        catch (Win32Exception)
        {
            bitSrc = null;
        }
        finally
        {
            NativeMethods.DeleteObject(hBitmap);
        }

        return bitSrc;
    }

and the NativeMethods class (to appease FxCop)

    /// <summary>
/// FxCop requires all Marshalled functions to be in a class called NativeMethods.
/// </summary>
internal static class NativeMethods
{
    [DllImport("gdi32.dll")]
    [return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
    internal static extern bool DeleteObject(IntPtr hObject);
}

Solution 4

It took me some time to get the conversion working both ways, so here are the two extension methods I came up with:

using System.Drawing;
using System.Drawing.Imaging;
using System.IO;
using System.Windows.Media.Imaging;

public static class BitmapConversion {

    public static Bitmap ToWinFormsBitmap(this BitmapSource bitmapsource) {
        using (MemoryStream stream = new MemoryStream()) {
            BitmapEncoder enc = new BmpBitmapEncoder();
            enc.Frames.Add(BitmapFrame.Create(bitmapsource));
            enc.Save(stream);

            using (var tempBitmap = new Bitmap(stream)) {
                // According to MSDN, one "must keep the stream open for the lifetime of the Bitmap."
                // So we return a copy of the new bitmap, allowing us to dispose both the bitmap and the stream.
                return new Bitmap(tempBitmap);
            }
        }
    }

    public static BitmapSource ToWpfBitmap(this Bitmap bitmap) {
        using (MemoryStream stream = new MemoryStream()) {
            bitmap.Save(stream, ImageFormat.Bmp);

            stream.Position = 0;
            BitmapImage result = new BitmapImage();
            result.BeginInit();
            // According to MSDN, "The default OnDemand cache option retains access to the stream until the image is needed."
            // Force the bitmap to load right now so we can dispose the stream.
            result.CacheOption = BitmapCacheOption.OnLoad;
            result.StreamSource = stream;
            result.EndInit();
            result.Freeze();
            return result;
        }
    }
}

Solution 5

The easiest thing is if you can make the WPF bitmap from a file directly.

Otherwise you will have to use System.Windows.Interop.Imaging.CreateBitmapSourceFromHBitmap.

Solution 6

// at class level;
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.DllImport("gdi32.dll")]
public static extern bool DeleteObject(IntPtr hObject);    // https://stackoverflow.com/a/1546121/194717


/// <summary> 
/// Converts a <see cref="System.Drawing.Bitmap"/> into a WPF <see cref="BitmapSource"/>. 
/// </summary> 
/// <remarks>Uses GDI to do the conversion. Hence the call to the marshalled DeleteObject. 
/// </remarks> 
/// <param name="source">The source bitmap.</param> 
/// <returns>A BitmapSource</returns> 
public static System.Windows.Media.Imaging.BitmapSource ToBitmapSource(this System.Drawing.Bitmap source)
{
    var hBitmap = source.GetHbitmap();
    var result = System.Windows.Interop.Imaging.CreateBitmapSourceFromHBitmap(hBitmap, IntPtr.Zero, System.Windows.Int32Rect.Empty, System.Windows.Media.Imaging.BitmapSizeOptions.FromEmptyOptions());

    DeleteObject(hBitmap);

    return result;
}

Solution 7

You can just share the pixeldata between a both namespaces ( Media and Drawing) by writing a custom bitmapsource. The conversion will happen immediately and no additional memory will be allocated. If you do not want to explicitly create a copy of your Bitmap this is the method you want.

class SharedBitmapSource : BitmapSource, IDisposable
{
    #region Public Properties

    /// <summary>
    /// I made it public so u can reuse it and get the best our of both namespaces
    /// </summary>
    public Bitmap Bitmap { get; private set; }

    public override double DpiX { get { return Bitmap.HorizontalResolution; } }

    public override double DpiY { get { return Bitmap.VerticalResolution; } }

    public override int PixelHeight { get { return Bitmap.Height; } }

    public override int PixelWidth { get { return Bitmap.Width; } }

    public override System.Windows.Media.PixelFormat Format { get { return ConvertPixelFormat(Bitmap.PixelFormat); } }

    public override BitmapPalette Palette { get { return null; } }

    #endregion

    #region Constructor/Destructor

    public SharedBitmapSource(int width, int height,System.Drawing.Imaging.PixelFormat sourceFormat)
        :this(new Bitmap(width,height, sourceFormat) ) { }

    public SharedBitmapSource(Bitmap bitmap)
    {
        Bitmap = bitmap;
    }

    // Use C# destructor syntax for finalization code.
    ~SharedBitmapSource()
    {
        // Simply call Dispose(false).
        Dispose(false);
    }

    #endregion

    #region Overrides

    public override void CopyPixels(Int32Rect sourceRect, Array pixels, int stride, int offset)
    {
        BitmapData sourceData = Bitmap.LockBits(
        new Rectangle(sourceRect.X, sourceRect.Y, sourceRect.Width, sourceRect.Height),
        ImageLockMode.ReadOnly,
        Bitmap.PixelFormat);

        var length = sourceData.Stride * sourceData.Height;

        if (pixels is byte[])
        {
            var bytes = pixels as byte[];
            Marshal.Copy(sourceData.Scan0, bytes, 0, length);
        }

        Bitmap.UnlockBits(sourceData);
    }

    protected override Freezable CreateInstanceCore()
    {
        return (Freezable)Activator.CreateInstance(GetType());
    }

    #endregion

    #region Public Methods

    public BitmapSource Resize(int newWidth, int newHeight)
    {
        Image newImage = new Bitmap(newWidth, newHeight);
        using (Graphics graphicsHandle = Graphics.FromImage(newImage))
        {
            graphicsHandle.InterpolationMode = InterpolationMode.HighQualityBicubic;
            graphicsHandle.DrawImage(Bitmap, 0, 0, newWidth, newHeight);
        }
        return new SharedBitmapSource(newImage as Bitmap);
    }

    public new BitmapSource Clone()
    {
        return new SharedBitmapSource(new Bitmap(Bitmap));
    }

    //Implement IDisposable.
    public void Dispose()
    {
        Dispose(true);
        GC.SuppressFinalize(this);
    }

    #endregion

    #region Protected/Private Methods

    private static System.Windows.Media.PixelFormat ConvertPixelFormat(System.Drawing.Imaging.PixelFormat sourceFormat)
    {
        switch (sourceFormat)
        {
            case System.Drawing.Imaging.PixelFormat.Format24bppRgb:
                return PixelFormats.Bgr24;

            case System.Drawing.Imaging.PixelFormat.Format32bppArgb:
                return PixelFormats.Pbgra32;

            case System.Drawing.Imaging.PixelFormat.Format32bppRgb:
                return PixelFormats.Bgr32;

        }
        return new System.Windows.Media.PixelFormat();
    }

    private bool _disposed = false;

    protected virtual void Dispose(bool disposing)
    {
        if (!_disposed)
        {
            if (disposing)
            {
                // Free other state (managed objects).
            }
            // Free your own state (unmanaged objects).
            // Set large fields to null.
            _disposed = true;
        }
    }

    #endregion
}

Solution 8

I work at an imaging vendor and wrote an adapter for WPF to our image format which is similar to a System.Drawing.Bitmap.

I wrote this KB to explain it to our customers:

http://www.atalasoft.com/kb/article.aspx?id=10156

And there is code there that does it. You need to replace AtalaImage with Bitmap and do the equivalent thing that we are doing -- it should be pretty straightforward.

Solution 9

My take on this built from a number of resources. https://stackoverflow.com/a/7035036 https://stackoverflow.com/a/1470182/360211

using System;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Runtime.ConstrainedExecution;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Security;
using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Interop;
using System.Windows.Media.Imaging;
using Microsoft.Win32.SafeHandles;

namespace WpfHelpers
{
    public static class BitmapToBitmapSource
    {
        public static BitmapSource ToBitmapSource(this Bitmap source)
        {
            using (var handle = new SafeHBitmapHandle(source))
            {
                return Imaging.CreateBitmapSourceFromHBitmap(handle.DangerousGetHandle(),
                    IntPtr.Zero, Int32Rect.Empty,
                    BitmapSizeOptions.FromEmptyOptions());
            }
        }

        [DllImport("gdi32")]
        private static extern int DeleteObject(IntPtr o);

        private sealed class SafeHBitmapHandle : SafeHandleZeroOrMinusOneIsInvalid
        {
            [SecurityCritical]
            public SafeHBitmapHandle(Bitmap bitmap)
                : base(true)
            {
                SetHandle(bitmap.GetHbitmap());
            }

            [ReliabilityContract(Consistency.WillNotCorruptState, Cer.Success)]
            protected override bool ReleaseHandle()
            {
                return DeleteObject(handle) > 0;
            }
        }
    }
}

Solution 10

I came to this question because I was trying to do the same, but in my case the Bitmap is from a resource/file. I found the best solution is as described in the following link:

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.windows.media.imaging.bitmapimage.aspx

// Create the image element.
Image simpleImage = new Image();    
simpleImage.Width = 200;
simpleImage.Margin = new Thickness(5);

// Create source.
BitmapImage bi = new BitmapImage();
// BitmapImage.UriSource must be in a BeginInit/EndInit block.
bi.BeginInit();
bi.UriSource = new Uri(@"/sampleImages/cherries_larger.jpg",UriKind.RelativeOrAbsolute);
bi.EndInit();
// Set the image source.
simpleImage.Source = bi;