java

swing

user-interface

model-view-controller

I'm practicing MVC style programming. I have a Mastermind game in a single file, working fine (maybe apart of the fact that "Check" button is invisible at start).

http://paste.pocoo.org/show/226726/

But when I've rewritten it to model, view, controller files - and when I click on empty Pin (that should be updated, and repainted with new color) - noting happens. Can anybody see any problems here ? I've tried placing repaint() in different places, but it simply does not work at all :/

Main :

public class Main { 
    public static void main(String[] args){
        Model model = new Model();
        View view = new View("Mastermind", 400, 590, model);
        Controller controller = new Controller(model, view); 
        view.setVisible(true);
    }
}

Model :

import java.util.Random;

public class Model{
    static final int
    LINE = 5,
    SCORE = 10, OPTIONS = 20;
    Pin pins[][] = new Pin[21][LINE];
    int combination[] = new int[LINE];
    int curPin = 0;
    int turn = 1;
    Random generator = new Random();
    int repaintPin;
    boolean pinsRepaint=false;
    int pinsToRepaint;
    boolean isUpdate = true, isPlaying = true, isRowFull = false;
    static final int HIT_X[] = {270,290,310,290,310}, HIT_Y[] = {506,496,496,516,516};

    public Model(){

        for ( int i=0; i < SCORE; i++ ){
            for ( int j = 0; j < LINE; j++ ){
                pins[i][j] = new Pin(20,0);
                pins[i][j].setPosition(j*50+30,510-i*50);
                pins[i+SCORE][j] = new Pin(8,0);
                pins[i+SCORE][j].setPosition(HIT_X[j],HIT_Y[j]-i*50);
            }
        }
        for ( int i=0; i < LINE; i++ ){
            pins[OPTIONS][i] = new Pin( 20, i+2 );
            pins[OPTIONS][i].setPosition( 370,i * 50 + 56);
        }

    }

    void fillHole(int color) {
        pins[turn-1][curPin].setColor(color+1);
        pinsRepaint = true;
        pinsToRepaint = turn;
        curPin = (curPin+1) % LINE;
        if (curPin == 0){
            isRowFull = true;
        }
        pinsRepaint = false;
        pinsToRepaint = 0;
    }

    void check() {
        int junkPins[] = new int[LINE], junkCode[] = new int[LINE];
        int pinCount = 0, pico = 0;

        for ( int i = 0; i < LINE; i++ ) {
            junkPins[i] = pins[turn-1][i].getColor();
            junkCode[i] = combination[i];
        }
        for ( int i = 0; i < LINE; i++ ){
            if (junkPins[i]==junkCode[i]) {
                pins[turn+SCORE][pinCount].setColor(1);
                pinCount++;
                pico++;
                junkPins[i] = 98;
                junkCode[i] = 99;
            }
        }
        for ( int i = 0; i < LINE; i++ ){
            for ( int j = 0; j < LINE; j++ )
                if (junkPins[i]==junkCode[j]) {
                    pins[turn+SCORE][pinCount].setColor(2);
                    pinCount++;
                    junkPins[i] = 98;
                    junkCode[j] = 99;
                    j = LINE;
            }
        }
        pinsRepaint = true;
        pinsToRepaint = turn + SCORE;
        pinsRepaint = false;
        pinsToRepaint=0;

        if ( pico == LINE ){
            isPlaying = false;
        }
        else if ( turn >= 10 ){
                isPlaying = false;
        }
        else{
            curPin = 0;
            isRowFull = false;
            turn++;
        }
    }

    void combination() {
        for ( int i = 0; i < LINE; i++ ){
          combination[i] = generator.nextInt(6) + 1;
        }
    }
}

class Pin{
    private int color, X, Y, radius;

    public Pin(){
        X = 0; Y = 0; radius = 0; color = 0;
    }

    public Pin( int r,int c ){
        X = 0; Y = 0; radius = r; color = c;
    }

    public int getX(){
        return X;
    }

    public int getY(){
        return Y;
    }

    public int getRadius(){
        return radius;
    }

    public void setRadius(int r){
        radius = r;
    }

    public void setPosition( int x,int y ){
        this.X = x ;
        this.Y = y ;
    }
    public void setColor( int c ){
        color = c;
    }
    public int getColor() {
        return color;
    }
}

View:

import java.awt.*;
import javax.swing.*;

public class View extends Frame{  
    Model model;
    JButton checkAnswer;
    private JPanel button;
    private static final Color COLORS[] = {Color.black, Color.white, Color.red, Color.yellow, Color.green, Color.blue, new Color(7, 254, 250)};

    public View(String name, int w, int h, Model m){
        model = m;
        setTitle( name );
        setSize( w,h );
        setResizable( false );
        this.setLayout(new BorderLayout());

        button = new JPanel();
        button.setSize( new Dimension(400, 100));
        button.setVisible(true);
        checkAnswer = new JButton("Check");
        checkAnswer.setSize( new Dimension(200, 30));
        button.add( checkAnswer );
        this.add( button, BorderLayout.SOUTH);
        button.setVisible(true);
    }

    @Override
    public void paint( Graphics g ) {
        g.setColor( new Color(238, 238, 238));
        g.fillRect( 0,0,400,590);

        for ( int i=0; i < model.pins.length; i++ ) {
            paintPins(model.pins[i][0],g);
            paintPins(model.pins[i][1],g);
            paintPins(model.pins[i][2],g);
            paintPins(model.pins[i][3],g);
            paintPins(model.pins[i][4],g);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void update( Graphics g ) {
        if ( model.isUpdate ) {
            paint(g);
        }
        else {
            model.isUpdate = true;
            paintPins(model.pins[model.repaintPin-1][0],g);
            paintPins(model.pins[model.repaintPin-1][1],g);
            paintPins(model.pins[model.repaintPin-1][2],g);
            paintPins(model.pins[model.repaintPin-1][3],g);
            paintPins(model.pins[model.repaintPin-1][4],g);
        }
    }

    void repaintPins( int pin ) {
        model.repaintPin = pin;
        model.isUpdate = false;
        repaint();
    }

    public void paintPins(Pin p, Graphics g ){
        int X = p.getX();
        int Y = p.getY();
        int color = p.getColor();
        int radius = p.getRadius();
        int x = X-radius;
        int y = Y-radius;

        if (color > 0){
            g.setColor( COLORS[color]);
            g.fillOval( x,y,2*radius,2*radius );
        }
        else{
            g.setColor( new Color(238, 238, 238) );
            g.drawOval( x,y,2*radius-1,2*radius-1 );
        }
        g.setColor( Color.black );
        g.drawOval( x,y,2*radius,2*radius );
    }
}

Controller:

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;

public class Controller implements MouseListener, ActionListener { 
    private Model model;
    private View view;

    public Controller(Model m, View v){ 
        model = m;
        view = v;

        view.addWindowListener( new WindowAdapter(){
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e){
            System.exit(0);
        } });
        view.addMouseListener(this);
        view.checkAnswer.addActionListener(this);
        model.combination();
    }

    public void actionPerformed( ActionEvent e ) {
        if(e.getSource() == view.checkAnswer){
            if(model.isRowFull){
                model.check();
            }
        }
    }

    public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) {
        Point mouse = new Point();

        mouse = e.getPoint();
        if (model.isPlaying){
            if (mouse.x > 350) {
                int button = 1 + (int)((mouse.y - 32) / 50);
                if ((button >= 1) && (button <= 5)){
                    model.fillHole(button);
                    if(model.pinsRepaint){
                        view.repaintPins( model.pinsToRepaint );
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

    public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent e) {}
    public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e){}
    public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent e) {}
    public void mouseExited(MouseEvent e)  {}
}

Solution 1

As you've discovered, the ModelViewController pattern is no panacea, but it offers some advantages. Rooted in MVC, the Swing separable model architecture is discussed in A Swing Architecture Overview. Based on this outline, the following example shows an MVC implementation of a much simpler game that illustrates similar principles. Note that the Model manages a single Piece, chosen at random. In response to a user's selection, the View invokes the check() method, while listening for a response from the Model via update(). The View then updates itself using information obtained from the Model. Similarly, the Controller may reset() the Model. In particular, there is no drawing in the Model and no game logic in the View. This somewhat more complex game was designed to illustrate the same concepts.

Addendum: I've modified the original example to show how MVC allows one to enhance the View without changing the nature of the Model.

Addendum: As @akf observes, MVC hinges on the observer pattern. Your Model needs a way to notify the View of changes. Several approaches are widely used:

Addendum: Some common questions about Swing controllers are addressed here and here.

import java.awt.BorderLayout;
import java.awt.Color;
import java.awt.Component;
import java.awt.EventQueue;
import java.awt.Graphics;
import java.awt.Graphics2D;
import java.awt.RenderingHints;
import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;
import java.util.Observable;
import java.util.Observer;
import java.util.Random;
import javax.swing.Icon;
import javax.swing.JButton;
import javax.swing.JFrame;
import javax.swing.JLabel;
import javax.swing.JPanel;

/**
 * @see http://stackoverflow.com/q/3066590/230513
 * @see http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5274962
 */
public class MVCGame {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        EventQueue.invokeLater(new MVCGame()::display);
    }

    public void display() {
        JFrame f = new JFrame();
        f.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
        f.add(new MainPanel());
        f.pack();
        f.setLocationRelativeTo(null);
        f.setVisible(true);
    }
}

final class MainPanel extends JPanel {

    public MainPanel() {
        super(new BorderLayout());
        Model model = new Model();
        View view = new View(model);
        Control control = new Control(model, view);
        JLabel label = new JLabel("Guess what color!", JLabel.CENTER);
        this.add(label, BorderLayout.NORTH);
        this.add(view, BorderLayout.CENTER);
        this.add(control.createPanel(), BorderLayout.SOUTH);
    }
}

/**
 * Control panel
 */
final class Control {

    private final Model model;
    private final View view;
    private final JButton reset = new JButton("Reset");

    public Control(Model model, View view) {
        this.model = model;
        this.view = view;
    }

    public JPanel createPanel() {
        JPanel panel = new JPanel();
        panel.add(reset);
        reset.addActionListener(new ButtonHandler());
        return panel;
    }

    private class ButtonHandler implements ActionListener {

        @Override
        public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
            String cmd = e.getActionCommand();
            if ("Reset".equals(cmd)) {
                model.reset();
            }
        }
    }
}

/**
 * View
 */
final class View extends JPanel {

    private static final String PROMPT = "Click a button.";
    private final Model model;
    private final ColorIcon icon = new ColorIcon(80, Color.gray);
    private final JLabel label = new JLabel(PROMPT, icon, JLabel.CENTER);

    public View(Model model) {
        super(new BorderLayout());
        this.model = model;
        label.setVerticalTextPosition(JLabel.BOTTOM);
        label.setHorizontalTextPosition(JLabel.CENTER);
        this.add(label, BorderLayout.CENTER);
        this.add(genButtonPanel(), BorderLayout.SOUTH);
        model.addObserver(new ModelObserver());
    }

    private JPanel genButtonPanel() {
        JPanel panel = new JPanel();
        for (Piece p : Piece.values()) {
            PieceButton pb = new PieceButton(p);
            pb.addActionListener(new ButtonHandler());
            panel.add(pb);
        }
        return panel;
    }

    private class ModelObserver implements Observer {

        @Override
        public void update(Observable o, Object arg) {
            if (arg == null) {
                label.setText(PROMPT);
                icon.color = Color.gray;
            } else {
                if ((Boolean) arg) {
                    label.setText("Win!");
                } else {
                    label.setText("Keep trying.");
                }
            }
        }
    }

    private class ButtonHandler implements ActionListener {

        @Override
        public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
            PieceButton pb = (PieceButton) e.getSource();
            icon.color = pb.piece.color;
            label.repaint();
            model.check(pb.piece);
        }
    }

    private final static class PieceButton extends JButton {

        private Piece piece;

        public PieceButton(Piece piece) {
            this.piece = piece;
            this.setIcon(new ColorIcon(16, piece.color));
        }
    }

    private static class ColorIcon implements Icon {

        private final int size;
        private Color color;

        public ColorIcon(int size, Color color) {
            this.size = size;
            this.color = color;
        }

        @Override
        public void paintIcon(Component c, Graphics g, int x, int y) {
            Graphics2D g2d = (Graphics2D) g;
            g2d.setRenderingHint(
                RenderingHints.KEY_ANTIALIASING,
                RenderingHints.VALUE_ANTIALIAS_ON);
            g2d.setColor(color);
            g2d.fillOval(x, y, size, size);
        }

        @Override
        public int getIconWidth() {
            return size;
        }

        @Override
        public int getIconHeight() {
            return size;
        }
    }
}

/**
 * Model
 */
class Model extends Observable {

    private static final Random rnd = new Random();
    private static final Piece[] pieces = Piece.values();
    private Piece hidden = init();

    private Piece init() {
        return pieces[rnd.nextInt(pieces.length)];
    }

    public void reset() {
        hidden = init();
        setChanged();
        notifyObservers();
    }

    public void check(Piece guess) {
        setChanged();
        notifyObservers(guess.equals(hidden));
    }
}

enum Piece {

    Red(Color.red), Green(Color.green), Blue(Color.blue);
    public Color color;

    private Piece(Color color) {
        this.color = color;
    }
}

Solution 2

When looking through Swing, one way that the designers consistently employ updating of View components in its MVC implementation is through Observer/Observable callbacks. An example can be seen in the AbstractTableModel, which has a variety of fireTable*Changed/Updated/etc methods that will alert all of its TableModelListener observers of mods to the model.

One option you have is to add a listener type to your Model class, and then notify your registered observers of any mods to the state of your model. Your View should be a listener, and it should repaint itself upon receipt of an update.

EDIT: +1 to trashgod. consider this an alternate wording to his explanation.