On application launch, app starts the service that should to do some network task. After targeting API level 26, my application fails to start service on Android 8.0 on background.

Caused by: java.lang.IllegalStateException: Not allowed to start service Intent { cmp=my.app.tt/com.my.service }: app is in background uid UidRecord{90372b1 u0a136 CEM idle procs:1 seq(0,0,0)}

as I understand it related to: Background execution limits

The startService() method now throws an IllegalStateException if an app targeting Android 8.0 tries to use that method in a situation when it isn't permitted to create background services.

"in a situation when it isn't permitted" - what it's actually mean?? And how to fix it. I don't want to set my service as "foreground"

Solution 1

I got solution. For pre-8.0 devices, you have to just use startService(), but for post-7.0 devices, you have to use startForgroundService(). Here is sample for code to start service.

if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.O) {
        context.startForegroundService(new Intent(context, ServedService.class));
    } else {
        context.startService(new Intent(context, ServedService.class));
    }

And in service class, please add the code below for notification:

@Override
public void onCreate() {
    super.onCreate();
    startForeground(1,new Notification());
}

Where O is Android version 26.

If you don't want your service to run in Foreground and want it to run in background instead, post Android O you must bind the service to a connection like below:

Intent serviceIntent = new Intent(context, ServedService.class);
context.startService(serviceIntent);
context.bindService(serviceIntent, new ServiceConnection() {
     @Override
     public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName name, IBinder service) {
         //retrieve an instance of the service here from the IBinder returned 
         //from the onBind method to communicate with 
     }

     @Override
     public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName name) {
     }
}, Context.BIND_AUTO_CREATE);

Solution 2

The permitted situations are a temporary whitelist where the background service behaves the same as before Android O.

Under certain circumstances, a background app is placed on a temporary whitelist for several minutes. While an app is on the whitelist, it can launch services without limitation, and its background services are permitted to run. An app is placed on the whitelist when it handles a task that's visible to the user, such as:

  • Handling a high-priority Firebase Cloud Messaging (FCM) message.
  • Receiving a broadcast, such as an SMS/MMS message.
  • Executing a PendingIntent from a notification.
  • Starting a VpnService before the VPN app promotes itself to the foreground.

Source: https://developer.android.com/about/versions/oreo/background.html

So in other words if your background service does not meet the whitelist requirements you have to use the new JobScheduler. It's basically the same as a background service, but it gets called periodically instead of running in the background continuously.

If you're using an IntentService, you can change to a JobIntentService. See @kosev's answer below.

Solution 3

The best way is to use JobIntentService which uses the new JobScheduler for Oreo or the old services if not available.

Declare in your manifest:

<service android:name=".YourService"
         android:permission="android.permission.BIND_JOB_SERVICE"/>

And in your service you have to replace onHandleIntent with onHandleWork:

public class YourService extends JobIntentService {

    public static final int JOB_ID = 1;

    public static void enqueueWork(Context context, Intent work) {
        enqueueWork(context, YourService.class, JOB_ID, work);
    }

    @Override
    protected void onHandleWork(@NonNull Intent intent) {
        // your code
    }

}

Then you start your service with:

YourService.enqueueWork(context, new Intent());

Solution 4

If the service is running in a background thread by extending IntentService, you can replace IntentService with JobIntentService which is provided as part of Android Support Library

The advantage of using JobIntentService is, it behaves as an IntentService on pre-O devices and on O and higher, it dispatches it as a job

JobScheduler can also be used for periodic/on demand jobs. But, ensure to handle backward compatibility as JobScheduler API is available only from API 21

Solution 5

Yeah, that's because you can't start services in the background anymore on API 26. So you can start ForegroundService above API 26.

You'll have to use

ContextCompat.startForegroundService(...)

and post a notification while processing the leak.

Solution 6

In Oreo Android defined limits to background services.

To improve the user experience, Android 8.0 (API level 26) imposes limitations on what apps can do while running in the background.

Still if you need always running service, then you can use foreground service.

Background Service Limitations: While an app is idle, there are limits to its use of background services. This does not apply to foreground services, which are more noticeable to the user.

So you can make a foreground service. You will need to show a notification to user when your service is running. See this answer (There are many others)

A solution if -

you don't want a notification for your service?

You can make periodic task, 1. it starts your service, 2. service will do its work and 3. stops itself. By this your app will not be considered battery draining.

You can use periodic task with Alarm Manager, Job Scheduler, Evernote-Jobs or Work Manager.

I have tested forever running service with Work-Manager.

Solution 7

As @kosev said in his answer you can use JobIntentService. But I use an alternative solution - I catch IllegalStateException and start the service as foreground. For example, this function starts my service:

@JvmStatic
protected fun startService(intentAction: String, serviceType: Class<*>, intentExtraSetup: (Intent) -> Unit) {
    val context = App.context
    val intent = Intent(context, serviceType)
    intent.action = intentAction
    intentExtraSetup(intent)
    intent.putExtra(NEED_FOREGROUND_KEY, false)

    try {
        context.startService(intent)
    }
    catch (ex: IllegalStateException) {
        intent.putExtra(NEED_FOREGROUND_KEY, true)
        if(Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.O) {
            context.startForegroundService(intent)
        }
        else {
            context.startService(intent)
        }
    }
}

and when I process Intent I do such thing:

override fun onHandleIntent(intent: Intent?) {
    val needToMoveToForeground = intent?.getBooleanExtra(NEED_FOREGROUND_KEY, false) ?: false
    if(needToMoveToForeground) {
        val notification = notificationService.createSyncServiceNotification()
        startForeground(notification.second, notification.first)

        isInForeground = true
    }

    intent?.let {
        getTask(it)?.process()
    }
}

Solution 8

Alternate solution by using JobScheduler, it can start service in background in regular interval of time.

Firstly make class named as Util.java

import android.app.job.JobInfo;
import android.app.job.JobScheduler;
import android.content.ComponentName;
import android.content.Context;

public class Util {
// schedule the start of the service every 10 - 30 seconds
public static void schedulerJob(Context context) {
    ComponentName serviceComponent = new ComponentName(context,TestJobService.class);
    JobInfo.Builder builder = new JobInfo.Builder(0,serviceComponent);
    builder.setMinimumLatency(1*1000);    // wait at least
    builder.setOverrideDeadline(3*1000);  //delay time
    builder.setRequiredNetworkType(JobInfo.NETWORK_TYPE_UNMETERED);  // require unmetered network
    builder.setRequiresCharging(false);  // we don't care if the device is charging or not
    builder.setRequiresDeviceIdle(true); // device should be idle
    System.out.println("(scheduler Job");

    JobScheduler jobScheduler = null;
    if (android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.M) {
        jobScheduler = context.getSystemService(JobScheduler.class);
    }
    jobScheduler.schedule(builder.build());
   }
  }

Then, make JobService class named as TestJobService.java

import android.app.job.JobParameters;
import android.app.job.JobService;
import android.widget.Toast;
 
  /**
   * JobService to be scheduled by the JobScheduler.
   * start another service
   */ 
public class TestJobService extends JobService {
@Override
public boolean onStartJob(JobParameters params) {
    Util.schedulerJob(getApplicationContext()); // reschedule the job
    Toast.makeText(this, "Bg Service", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    return true;
}

@Override
public boolean onStopJob(JobParameters params) {
    return true;
  }
 }

After that BroadCast Receiver class named ServiceReceiver.java

import android.content.BroadcastReceiver;
import android.content.Context;
import android.content.Intent;

 public class ServiceReceiver extends BroadcastReceiver {
 @Override
public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
    Util.schedulerJob(context);
 }
}

Update Manifest file with service and receiver class code

<receiver android:name=".ServiceReceiver" >
        <intent-filter>
            <action android:name="android.intent.action.BOOT_COMPLETED" />
        </intent-filter>
    </receiver>
    <service
        android:name=".TestJobService"
        android:label="Word service"
        android:permission="android.permission.BIND_JOB_SERVICE" >

    </service>

Left main_intent launcher to mainActivity.java file which is created by default, and changes in MainActivity.java file are

import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

@Override
protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
    Util.schedulerJob(getApplicationContext());
  }
 }

WOOAAH!! Background Service starts without Foreground service

[Edit]: You can use Work Manager for any type of background tasks in Android.

Solution 9

I see a lot of responses that recommend just using a ForegroundService. In order to use a ForegroundService there has to be a notification associated with it. Users will see this notification. Depending on the situation, they may become annoyed with your app and uninstall it.

The easiest solution is to use the new Architecture Component called WorkManager. You can check out the documentation here: https://developer.android.com/topic/libraries/architecture/workmanager/

You just define your worker class that extends Worker.

public class CompressWorker extends Worker {

    public CompressWorker(
        @NonNull Context context,
        @NonNull WorkerParameters params) {
        super(context, params);
    }

    @Override
    public Worker.Result doWork() {

        // Do the work here--in this case, compress the stored images.
        // In this example no parameters are passed; the task is
        // assumed to be "compress the whole library."
        myCompress();

        // Indicate success or failure with your return value:
        return Result.SUCCESS;

        // (Returning RETRY tells WorkManager to try this task again
        // later; FAILURE says not to try again.)
    }
}

Then you schedule when you want to run it.

    OneTimeWorkRequest compressionWork = 
        new OneTimeWorkRequest.Builder(CompressWorker.class)
            .build();
    WorkManager.getInstance().enqueue(compressionWork);

Easy! There are a lot of ways you can configure workers. It supports recurring jobs and you can even do complex stuff like chaining if you need it. Hope this helps.

Solution 10

From the firebase release notes, they state that support for Android O was first released in 10.2.1 (although I'd recommend using the most recent version).

please add new firebase messaging dependencies for android O

compile 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging:11.6.2'

upgrade google play services and google repositories if needed.

Solution 11

If any intent was previously working fine when the app is in the background, it won't be the case any more from Android 8 and above. Only referring to intent which has to do some processing when app is in the background.

The below steps have to be followed:

  1. Above mentioned intent should be using JobIntentService instead of IntentService.
  2. The class which extends JobIntentService should implement the - onHandleWork(@NonNull Intent intent) method and should have below the method, which will invoke the onHandleWork method:

    public static void enqueueWork(Context context, Intent work) {
        enqueueWork(context, xyz.class, 123, work);
    }
    
  3. Call enqueueWork(Context, intent) from the class where your intent is defined.

    Sample code:

    Public class A {
    ...
    ...
        Intent intent = new Intent(Context, B.class);
        //startService(intent); 
        B.enqueueWork(Context, intent);
    }
    

The below class was previously extending the Service class

Public Class B extends JobIntentService{
...

    public static void enqueueWork(Context context, Intent work) {
        enqueueWork(context, B.class, JobId, work);
    }

    protected void onHandleWork(@NonNull Intent intent) {
        ...
        ...
    }
}
  1. com.android.support:support-compat is needed for JobIntentService - I use 26.1.0 V.

  2. Most important is to ensure the Firebase libraries version is on at least 10.2.1, I had issues with 10.2.0 - if you have any!

  3. Your manifest should have the below permission for the Service class:

    service android:name=".B"
    android:exported="false"
    android:permission="android.permission.BIND_JOB_SERVICE"
    

Hope this helps.

Solution 12

If you are running your code on 8.0 then application will crash. So start the service in the foreground. If below 8.0 use this :

Intent serviceIntent = new Intent(context, RingtonePlayingService.class);
context.startService(serviceIntent);

If above or 8.0 then use this :

Intent serviceIntent = new Intent(context, RingtonePlayingService.class);
ContextCompat.startForegroundService(context, serviceIntent );

Solution 13

Due to controversial votes on this answer (+4/-4 as of this edit), PLEASE LOOK AT THE OTHER ANSWERS FIRST AND USE THIS ONLY AS A LAST RESORT. I only used this once for a networking app that runs as root and I agree with the general opinion that this solution should not be used under normal circumstances.

Original answer below:

The other answers are all correct, but I'd like to point out that another way to get around this is to ask user to disable battery optimizations for your app (this isn't usually a good idea unless your app is system related). See this answer for how to request to opt out of battery optimizations without getting your app banned in Google Play.

You should also check whether battery optimizations are turned off in your receiver to prevent crashes via:

if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT < 26 || getSystemService<PowerManager>()
        ?.isIgnoringBatteryOptimizations(packageName) != false) {
    startService(Intent(context, MyService::class.java))
} // else calling startService will result in crash

Solution 14

if you have integrated firebase messaging push notification then,

Add new/update firebase messaging dependencies for android O (Android 8.0), due to Background Execution Limits.

compile 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging:11.4.0'

upgrade google play services and google repositories if needed.

Update:

 compile 'com.google.firebase:firebase-messaging:11.4.2'

Solution 15

Use startForegroundService() instead of startService() and don't forget to create startForeground(1,new Notification()); in your service within 5 seconds of starting service.

Solution 16

it's actually happening because the phone is on offscreen, or you pressed the power button while starting the service. solution for this which worked for me is to start an activity and when it will go in onResume then start the service. in my case, it was booting up and starting a service.

Solution 17

I am very dissatisfied with the answers here. What if foreground service nor WorkManager fit the use case? I've come to a solution, where I use process scope and make sure to not include scope cancellation exception in the logging logic. Like so:

with(ProcessLifecycleOwner.get()) {
  lifecycleScope.launch {
    lifecycle.repeatOnLifecycle(Lifecycle.State.RESUMED) {
      try {
        context.startService(context, Service::class.java)
      } catch (ex: CancellationException) {
        // app minimized, scope cancelled, do not log as error
      } catch (ex: IllegalStateException) {
        logToFirebase(ex)
      }
    }
  }
}

More detailed in this article https://medium.com/@lepicekmichal/android-background-service-without-hiccup-501e4479110f

Solution 18

i had this problem too

added this library

implementation 'androidx.localbroadcastmanager:localbroadcastmanager:1.0.0'

and reinstalled the app solved this for me